Учебник английского - страница 17
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Учебник английского - страница 17



205

Продолжение



^ While reporting

Now, let us turn to the point ...

The second point is ...

Moving to point three ...And finally ...

So much about ...

I'd like to attract your attention to ...

Allow me to call your attention to ...

I should like to note (emphasize) ...




^ If you look at this diagram ... Have a look at ...




If you remember, I mentioned ... As I've already mentioned ...




^ Do you see what I mean ... Do you follow me... As far as I know ... Sorry, I got lost ...

Ending the report

In conclusion I'd like to stress the importance ... Thank you for your attention.




Audience

^ Introducing oneself

My name is John Smith. I am from Massachusetts Institute of Technology. I'm very impressed with Dr. B's complete (interesting) presentation. I'd like to give you my view on this subject ...

Questions

^ My question is as follows ...

I have a question to ask ...

One question is, the second question is ...

I'd like to ask a question in this connection...

There is a practical question which ...

Pd like to ask a question concerning ...

May I address a question to Dr. В.? Is it possible to

describe simply, how...

^ Agreement with the speaker

I think you are entirely right speaking about... I'd like to express agreement with the speaker

Disagreement

^ But I am not sure you are right.

I am very sorry to have to say that I don't agree

with Dr. B.

Unfortunately, I cannot agree with your final

statement.

I wish I could agree with you but...

We are not yet certain....

206

Окончание



Making remarks

This is an interesting work but it has a lack...




It is surprising...




It is unbelievable...




I'm not surprised that it is possible...




I find it hard to believe...




Td like to make a comment of general nature...




Fd like to make two more remarks...




I have a few points to make...




I have just a small point, but it may make things




much clearer a bit.




Excuse me, but Td just like to point out...

Making contribution

I'd like to add in connection with...

to the discussion

In addition, Td like to mention...




Let me put some more questions...

Exercise 6. Read and smile.

A Story Too Terrible To Tell

Three men came to New York for the first time. They took a room in a hotel. In the evening they went sight-seeing and did not come back till nearly three in the morning. The room they had taken was on the 43rd floor. «I am sorry, gentlemen», said the por­ter, «but the elevator does not work, there is something wrong with it. You will have to walk up to your room». This was too bad, but the men agreed to tell stories on the way up in order to kill the time.

By the time the first one had told his story, they had climbed up to the 11th floor. The next story kept them amused till they had reached the 31st floor. At last it was time for the third man to tell his story, but he refused. He said the story he had in mind was too terrible, he simply couldn't tell it. They continued climbing and all the time the two asked him to begin. At last they stopped and re­fused to go on unless he told them his terrible story. «The story I have to tell you is a short one», he said at last, «we have left the key to our room downstairs with the porter».

Text 10B

Прочитайте текст и найдите информацию о преимуществах применения оптических волокон в технике связи; о том, что послужило основой разра­ботки систем оптической связи, а также о практическом применении опти­ческой технологии. Соотнесите отмеченные в тексте факты со следующими датами: 1960, 1970, 1982 гг. Изложите эту информацию по-английски.

Optical Technology

One of the most interesting developments in telecommunica­tion is the rapid progress of optical communication where optical

207

fibers are replacing conventional telephone wires and cables. Just as digital technologies greatly improved the telephone system, opti­cal communication promises a considerable increase in capacity, quality, performance and reliability of the global telecommunica­tion network. New technologies such as optical fibers will increase the speed of telecommunication and provide new, specialized in-information service. Voice, computer data, even video images, will be increasingly integrated into a single digital communication network capable of processing and transmitting virtually any kind of information.

It is a result of combining two technologies: the laser, first dem­onstrated in 1960, and the fabrication 10 years later of ultra-thin silicon fibres which can serve as lightwave conductors. With the further development of very efficient lasers plus continually im­proved techniques to produce thin silica fibres of incredible trans­parency, optical systems can transmit pulses of light as far as 135 kilometers without the need for amplification or regeneration.

At present high-capacity optical transmission systems are being installed between many major US cities at a rapid rate. The system most widely used now operates at 147 megabits (thousand bits) per second and accommodates 6,000 circuits over a single pair of glass fibres (one for each direction of transmission). This system will soon be improved to operate at 1.7 gigabits (thousand million bits) per second and handle 24,000 telephone channels simultaneously.

A revolution in information storage is underway with optical disk technology.

The first digital optical disks were produced in 1982 as compact disks for music. They were further developed as a storage medium for computers. The disks are made of plastics coated with alu­minium. The information is recorded by using a powerful laser to imprint bubbles on the surface of the disk. A less powerful laser reads back the pictures, sound or information. An optical disk is al­most indestructible and can store about 1000 times more informa­tion than a plastic disk of the same size.

One CD-ROM disk (650 MB) can replace 300,000 pages of text (about 500 floppies), which represents a lot of savings in databases.

The future of optical storage is called DVD (digital versatile disk). A DVD-ROM can hold up to 17 GB, about 25 times an ordi­nary CD-ROM. For this reason, it can store a large amount of mul­timedia software and complete full-screen Hollywood movies in different languages. However, DVD-ROMs are «read-only» de­vices. To avoid this limitation, companies also produce DVD rewritable drives.

208

Besides, it is reported that an optical equivalent of a transistor has been produced and intensive research on optical electronic computers is underway at a number of US companies as well as in countries around the world.

It is found that optical technology is cost-effective and versa­tile. It finds new applications every day — from connecting com­munication equipment or computers within the same building or room to long-distance transcontinental, transoceanic and space communications.

Text IOC

^ Прочитайте текст и расскажите о практическом применении лазеров.

An Encyclopedia on a Tiny Crystal

Scientists have discovered that a laser beam can be effectively used to record alphanumeric data and sound on crystals. According to Russian researchers a method for recording information on crys­tals by means of a laser has already been developed, but advanced technologies are needed to make it commercially applicable.

At present researchers are looking for the most suitable chemi­cal compounds to be used as data storages and trying to determine optimum recording conditions. Theoretically, the entire «Great Soviet Encyclopedia» can be recorded on a single tiny crystal.

As far back as 1845, Michael Faradey discovered that a light beam reverses its polarization as it passes through a magnetized crystal. Scientists of our day have used this phenomenon to identify crystalline materials capable of storing information. Lasers have been successfully employed to record information on and read it off.

No ideal data storage crystal has yet been found, but it is obvi­ous now that the future of computer engineering lies in lasers and optoelectronics.

Text 10D

Прочитайте текст и найдите примеры все возрастающей тенденции к более тесному международному сотрудничеству. Почему такое сотрудничество необ­ходимо? Назовите страны-участницы такого сотрудничества. Запомните произ­ношение названий стран.

Science and International Cooperation

One of the most striking features of modern science is the in­creasing tendency towards closer cooperation between scientists and scientific organizations (institutions) all over the world. In

209

fact, it is becoming more and more evident that many of the prob­lems that affect the world today cannot be solved without joining scientific efforts and material resources on a wo rid-wide scale. The exploration of space, world finance, global environment protection problems and the development of new sources of power are the ex­amples of areas of scientific research which are so costly and com­plicated that it is difficult for a single country to solve them efficiently and in a short period of time. The renewal of interna­tional scientific cooperation was demonstrated in the sharing of data which were obtained by Russian, Japanese and European space probes in 1986 on Halley's comet.

Many countries were successfully cooperating on a programme called Intercosmos in launching a large number of vertical geo­physical rockets and satellites. Space exploration programmes were being conducted between Russia and Austria, India, France, Swe­den and other countries. Joint manned flights by Russian and for­eign cosmonauts included citizens from numerous countries. Many international crews have worked on orbit and carried out a lot of scientific experiments,

Russian and the U.S. engineers are now working side by side on the International Space Station, the largest peacetime engineering project in history.

Launched from opposite sides of the world, the first Interna­tional Space Station components Zarya and Unity have begun a new era of exploration as 16 nations joined their scientific and technological resources in the first truly international space pro­gram to improve life on Earth. Even before its launch, the Interna­tional Space Station has opened new spheres of research on Earth by overcoming barriers of language, culture and technological dif­ferences worldwide.

Indeed, it represents unprecedented (беспрецедентный, бес­примерный) global cooperation and trust. There is no doubt that it is the first step towards a unified «planetary civilization» that will explore space as citizens of Earth, not of individual nations.

^ ДОПОЛНИТЕЛЬНЫЕ ЗАДАНИЯ

Упражнение 1. А. Прочитайте словосочетания из текста 10А и постарай­тесь понять значения выделенных слов.

  1. time to disintegrate

  2. the duration of the pulse

  3. to be encountered

  4. in just a fraction of a second

210

В. Подберите к каждому выделенному в А слову соответствующее ему по значению.

a. to meet unexpectedly

b. only, merely

с break up into small parts

d. time during which smth lasts or exists

Упражнение 2. А. Прочитайте текст и постарайтесь понять значение сло­восочетания off-the-shelf item. Дайте определение или объяснение этому тер­мину.

Laser Propulsion

Another approach is to absorb laser light in a plasma «flame» sustained by laser light focused in the center of a flowing stream of propellant gas. Thrust levels as high as 10,000 N with a specific im­pulse (удельный импульс) of 1,000 sec appear achievable using hydrogen as the propellant gas. Laser power as low as 1 MW would be useful for low Earth orbit launching without relay optics. 10-100 MW lasers can launch small payloads from the ground. With up to 100 launches a day, a 20 MW launcher weighing 20 kg could place several hundred tons in orbit per year. Low-gigawatt lasers could launch multi-ton spacecraft with the same ease that present multi-gigawatt chemical rockets do. Laser rockets will have much better payload fraction since the heavy power plant is left on the ground and the higher specific impulse results in lower propellant fraction. Although gigawatt lasers are not off-the-shelf items, there is no doubt they could be built if the need were strong enough.

В. Выберите соответствующие контексту А значения выделенных слов.

approach

a. coming near to

b. approximation, a way to solve a problem
с way, path, road

sustain

a. enable to keep up, maintain

b. suffer, undergo
с keep from falling

relay

a. supply of fresh horses to take the place of tired ones

b. device which receives signals and transmits them with greater
strength, thus increasing the distance over which they are
carried

с place from which radio programs are broadcast after being received from another station

211

payload

a. passengers and cargo, but not fuel

b. bomb in a missile

с crew and instruments of a spaceship item

a. each single thing, part or object in a list

b. detail or paragraph (of news)
с number of a program

off-the-shelf

a. commercially available

b. ready to use

с possible or likely

Упражнение 3. Заполните пропуски словами. А.

capacity as well laser information light existing advantage space doubt amplified cost conventional

Optical fibres are made of glass and use (1) ... (usually from a (2) ... ) to transmit messages. There is no (3) ... optical fibre sys­tems have enormous (4) ... over (5) ... transmission systems. They have a much higher (6) ... than copper wires, can carry much more (7) ... and have a potentially lower material (8) ... Besides, optical fibres occupy far less (9) ... The quality of transmission is high (10) ... The signal does not need to be (11)... as often as with (12) ... ca­bles. Optical fibres do not suffer from interference.

в.

heat treatment distance melt identify beams vaporize displays light communication

Nowadays, lasers are used to (1) ... targets in military uses. In engineering, powerful laser (2) ... can be focused on a small area. They can (3) ..., (4) ..., or (5) ... material in a very precise way. La­sers are ideal for (6) ... in space. Laser light can travel long (7) ... without losing signal strength. In medicine, laser beams can be used for the (8) ... of damaged tissue (ткань) in a fraction of a sec­ond without causing harm (вреда) to healthy tissue. In the arts, la­sers can provide fantastic displays of (9) ... Pop concerts are often accompanied by laser (10) ...

212

Упражнение 4. Составьте возможные словосочетания глаголов из колон­ки А и существительных из колонки В.

  1. come to

  2. overcome / encounter

  3. record / store / carry

  4. realize

  5. place

В

a. information, data, sound

b. into orbit
с a project

d. reality

e. difficulties, differences

Упражнение 5. Заполните таблицу на словообразование.



Verb

Noun

Adjective

identify

• • •

...

amplify

idealization

vaporous




variety

strong limitless

treat

precision



Упражнение 6. А. Назовите 15—20 ключевых слов и словосочетаний на тему: «Laser applications».

В. Speak about:

Laser as a means of propulsion.

213

LESSON 11

Сложное подлежащее и сложное дополнение Значение слов either, neither и их сочетаний

Text ПА. Superconductivity

Text 11В.

Text ПС. New Hope for Energy

Text 11D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

^ ПРЕДТЕКСТОВЫЕ УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

Упражнение 1. Переведите предложения со сложным дополнением.

1. We know Morse to have been a painter by profession. 2. Sci­entists expect lasers to solve the problem of controlled thermonu­clear reaction. 3. M. Faraday supposed a beam of light to reverse its polarization as it passed through a magnetized crystal. 4. Designers expect dirigibles to be used for exploration of new territories. 5. Japanese designers believe a new ceramic engine to replace the conventional one. 6 Engineers suppose a new «night vision» system to enable drivers to see better after dark. 7. Scientists believe new laser devices to be widely used in medicine. 8. We know the first digital optical disks to have been produced as disks for music. 9. They believed him to be capable.

Упражнение 2. Найдите инфинитив в предложениях, переведите.

А. 1. Hundreds of radio navigation stations watch the airplanes find their destination and land safely. 2. Twice a year people see birds fly south and north, but we don't know how they find their way. 3. At the Paris Exhibition people watched the cargo airplane «Ruslan» carry a great amount of cargo. 4. When you stand near a working engine you feel it vibrate. 5. Making experiments with electric telegraph Morse noticed a pencil make a wavy line when

214

connected to an electric wire. 6. Nowadays people watch on televi­sion cosmonauts work in space, «Lunokhod» move on the surface of the Moon and Olympic games take place on the other side of the globe.

B. 1. A force applied to a body causes it to move in a straight line. 2. The unsatisfactory results of Bell's experiments forced him to change the method of testing. 3. The excellent properties of Da­mascus steel made metallurgists of the whole world look for the lost secret of the steel. 4. Very high temperatures often cause certain materials to break. 5. Bad weather conditions make pilots switch over to automatic control.


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